Midday napping in children: Associations between nap frequency and duration across cognitive, positive psychological well-being, behavioral, and metabolic health outcomes.
Poor sleep and daytime sleepiness in children and adolescents have short and long-term consequences on various aspects of health. Midday napping may be a useful strategy to reduce such negative impacts. The effect of habitual napping on a wide spectrum of cognitive, behavioral, psychological, and metabolic outcomes has not been systematically investigated.
Overall, napping was significantly associated with higher happiness, grit, and self-control, reduced internalizing behavior problem, higher verbal IQs, and better academic achievement, although specific patterns varied across frequency and duration for different outcomes. More limited significant associations were found for decreased externalizing behavior problems, compared to non-nappers, while no significant associations were found for performance IQ and metabolic outcomes.
Results indicate benefits of regular napping across a wide range of adolescent outcomes, including better cognition, better psychological wellness, and reduced emotional/behavioral problems. The current study underscores the need for further large-scale intervention studies to establish causal effects.